Primary Research Area
- Bio-Micro and Nanotechnology
For More Information
I obtained my Ph.D. degree in Electronic Engineering from Universitat Politècnica de Catalunya (UPC, Barcelona, Spain) in 2008. In 2009, I joined the Applied Molecular Receptors group (AMRg, currently Nanobiotechnology for Diagnostics (Nb4D)) at the Consejo Superior de Investigaciones Científicas (CSIC, Barcelona, Spain) as a Post-Doctoral researcher with a Juan de la Cierva fellowship. In 2012, I joined the Biomedical Research Networking Center in Bioengineering, Biomaterials and Nanomedicine (CIBER-BBN, Barcelona, Spain). In June 2014, I joined the Bayley Lab at the Department of Chemistry (UIUC, USA) as a Post-Doctoral researcher. In October 2016 I began work as a Research Scientist in the Bashir Lab at the UIUC. In 2021 I joined the Department of Bioengineering at the UIUC as a Research Assistant Professor. I am also a Research Affiliate at Carle Hospital (Biomedical Research Center).
During the last 18 years my research has been focused in several aspects of the Biosensors Technology. I have applied my biosensors experience, first, to the development of electrochemical transducers for the analysis of low molecular weight analytes in the food safety field, and most recently to the development of electrical and optical point-of care devices for clinical diagnostics applications. I have large experience in the development of new microfluidic approaches for cells, proteins and pathogens detection.
Besides my knowledge in the area of biosensors, I have further knowledge in several aspects of electronic, chemistry and microelectronic technology, such as nano-micro fabrication technologies (cleanroom lab), optics, impedance characterization, synthesis and selective functionalization of nanoparticles (semiconductors II-V, gold, magnetic, etc), surface chemistry, simulation of devices, gas sensors, porous silicon, MEMS, RF-MEMS and silicon technology.
As a result of my research, I have published thirty-nine (39) papers in prestigious international journals and other papers have been submitted or are pending submission. In addition to this, I have participated in numerous international and national conferences. Also, I have participated in funded projects in Europe (2), in Spain (6), and in the USA (9) where I am currently serving as Co-PI in 5 projects . The innovation resulting from my research has been protected with 4 patents (2 in Spain and 2 in the USA).
- Ph.D. 2008, Universitat Politècnica de Catalunya (UPC), Barcelona, Spain
- Research Assistant Professor, 03/2021 - Present, University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign (UIUC), IL, USA.
- Research Scientist, 07/2018 – 03/2021, University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign (UIUC), IL, USA.
- Biomedical Engineering Society
Service on Department Committees
- Awards Committee
- Diversity, Equity and Inclusion Committee
- Grad Executive Committee
- Graduate Admissions Committee
- Council on Diversity (CoD) , Diversity representative
- Electronic technology: Development of micro and nano devices. Silicon micromachining. Microfluidics.
- Biosensors technology: Point-of-care detection. Multiplexed detection. Biomarkers detection. Pathogens detection. Optical and electrochemical transducers. Clinical diagnostic and food safety applications.
One of my main goals as a researcher is to contribute to the development of a new generation of tools that help end the one-size-fits-all therapeutics. I am ambitious to develop personalized medical tools as global health technologies that can be used according to the limitations of remote settings around the world.
My vision is to develop a quicker, more precise diagnoses, and global health technologies that can contribute to more targeted and effective therapies. For example, I would like to contribute to identifying the precise bacteria which causes a specific infection in order to reduce the use of broad-spectrum antibiotics. I would like to monitor the immune response to infection to contribute the stratification of septic patients into different endotypes. I would like to contribute to make disease (and even the risk of disease) evident much earlier, when it can be treated more successfully or prevented altogether. I ambition to develop platforms that can be rapidly tailored to the detection of new viruses or biological agents.
To achieve these goals, I work on the development of POC devices and microfluidic platforms to detect the presence and/or concentration of biomarkers and pathogens. Biosensor technology, which is based on the use of specific biological recognition elements in combination with a transducer for signal processing, is expected to play a significant analytical role in clinical diagnostic, food safety, environmental monitoring, and so on. The biosensor definition and their wide possibility of applications, open the door to highly multidisciplinary collaborations among engineering, applied sciences (chemistry, biology or physics), and other fields of high social impact such as medicine, agriculture, etc. A successful collaboration among all of these components should be reflected in a final device that accomplishes the requirements of the different applications such as sensitivity, response time, reproducibility, portability, automation, multiplexing, and cost-effectivity. Successful biosensors must be versatile in order to support interchangeable biorecognition elements. The compliance of all these challenges in developing biosensor technology would allow the technology to be commercialized and transferred to clinical applications.
Primary Research Area
- Bio-Micro and Nanotechnology
Chapters in Books
- Immunosensors based on interdigitated electrodes for the detection and quantification of pesticides in food. Enrique Valera, Ángel Rodríguez. Herbicides. Mechanisms and mode of action. Chapter 2. Ed. Mohammed Naguib Abd El-Ghnay Hasanees. 2011. InTech.
- Immunosensors: concepts and structures for fast and accurate sensing. Ángel Rodríguez, Enrique Valera. Herbicides - Advances in Research. Chapter 10. Ed. Andrew J. Price and Jessica A. Kelton. 2013. InTech.
- Application of bioassays/biosensors for the analysis of pharmaceuticals in environmental samples. Enrique Valera, Ruth Babington, Marta Broto, Salvador Petanas, Roger Galve, M.-Pilar Marco. Comprehensive Analytical Chemistry 62 (2013) 195-229. Analysis Removal Effects and Risk of Pharmaceuticals in the Water Cycle – Occurrence and Transformation in the Environment. Elsevier.
Selected Articles in Journals
- Electrochemical point-of-care devices for the diagnosis of sepsis. Enrique Valera, Victoria Kindratenko, Aaron M. Jankelow, John Heredia, Alicia Y. Kim, Thomas W. Cowell, Chih-Lin Chen, Karen White, Hee-Sun Han, Rashid Bashir. Current Opinion in Electrochemistry, 2023, 101300.
- Persistent Luminescence Zn2GeO4:Mn2+ Nanoparticles Functionalized with Polyacrylic Acid: One-Pot Synthesis and Biosensing Applications. Roxana M. Calderón-Olvera, Encarnación Arroyo, Aaron M. Jankelow, Rashid Bashir, Enrique Valera, Manuel Ocaña, Ana Isabel Becerro. ACS Applied Materials and Interfaces, 2023.
- A culture-free biphasic approach for sensitive and rapid detection of pathogens in dried whole-blood matrix. Anurup Ganguli, Jongwon Lim, Ariana Mostafa, Carlos Saavedra, Archith Rayabharam, Narayana R. Aluru, Matthew Wester, Karen C. White, James Kumar, Reubin McGuffin, Ann Frederick, Enrique Valera, Rashid Bashir. PNAS, 2022, 119 (40) e2209607119.
- Smartphone clip-on instrument and microfluidic processor for rapid sample-to-answer detection of Zika virus in whole blood using spatial RT-LAMP. Aaron M. Jankelow, Hankeun Lee, Weijing Wang, Trung-Hieu Hoang, Amanda Bacon, Fu Sun, Seol Chae, Victoria Kindratenko, Katherine Koprowski, Robert A. Stavins, Dylann D. Ceriani, Zachary W. Engelder, William P. King, Minh N. Do, Rashid Bashir, Enrique Valera, Brian T. Cunningham. Analyst, 2022, 147, 3838-3853.
- Mitigation of SARS-CoV-2 Transmission at a Large Public University. Diana Rose E. Ranoa, Robin L. Holland, Fadi G. Alnaji, Kelsie J. Green, Leyi Wang, Richard L. Fredrickson, Tong Wang, George N. Wong, Johnny Uelmen, Sergei Maslov, Ahmed Elbanna, Zachary J. Weiner, Alexei V. Tkachenko, Hantao Zhang, Zhiru Liu, Sanjay J. Patel, John M. Paul, Nickolas P. Vance, Joseph G. Gulick, Sandeep Puthanveetil Satheesan, Isaac J. Galvan, Andrew Miller, Joseph Grohens, Todd J. Nelson, Mary P. Stevens, P. Mark Hennessy, Robert C. Parker Jr, Edward Santos, Charles Brackett, Julie D. Steinman, Melvin R. Fenner Jr, Kirstin Dohrer, Kraig Wagenecht, Michael DeLorenzo, Laura Wilhelm-Barr, Brian R. Brauer, Catherine Best-Popescu, Gary Durack, Nathan Wetter, David M. Kranz, Jessica Breitbarth, Charlie Simpson, Julie A. Pryde, Robin N. Kaler, Chris Harris, Allison C. Vance, Jodi L. Silotto, Mark Johnson, Enrique Valera, Patricia K. Anton, Lowa Mwilambwe, Stephen P. Bryan, Deborah S. Stone, Danita B. Young, Wanda E. Ward, John Lantz, John A. Vozenilek, Rashid Bashir, Jeffrey S. Moore, Mayank Garg, Julian C. Cooper, Gillian Snyder, Michelle H. Lore, Dustin L. Yocum, Neal J. Cohen, Jan E. Novakofski, Melanie J. Loots, Randy L. Ballard, Mark Band, Kayla M. Banks, Joseph D. Barnes, Iuliana Bentea, Jessica Black, Jeremy Busch, Hannah Christensen, Abigail Conte, Madison Conte, Michael Curry, Jennifer Eardley, April Edwards, Therese Eggett, Judes Fleurimont, Delaney Foster, Bruce W. Fouke, Nicholas Gallagher, Nicole Gastala, Scott A. Genung, Declan Glueck, Brittani Gray, Andrew Greta, Robert M. Healy, Ashley Hetrick, Arianna A Holterman, Nahed Ismail, Ian Jasenof, Patrick Kelly, Aaron Kielbasa, Teresa Kiesel, Lorenzo M. Kindle, Rhonda L. Lipking, Yukari C. Manabe, Jade Mayes, Reubin McGuffin, Kenton G. McHenry, Agha Mirza, Jada Moseley, Heba H. Mostafa, Melody Mumford, Kathleen Munoz, Arika D. Murray, Moira Nolan, Nil A. Parikh, Andrew Pekosz, Janna Pflugmacher, Janise M. Phillips, Collin Pitts, Mark C. Potter, James Quisenberry, Janelle Rear, Matthew L. Robinson, Edith Rosillo, Leslie N. Rye, MaryEllen Sherwood, Anna Simon, Jamie M. Singson, Carly Skadden, Tina H. Skelton, Charlie Smith, Mary Stech, Ryan Thomas, Matthew A. Tomaszewski, Erika A. Tyburski, Scott Vanwingerden, Evette Vlach, Ronald S. Watkins, Karriem Watson, Karen C. White, Timothy L. Killeen, Robert J. Jones, Andreas C. Cangellaris, Susan A. Martinis, Awais Vaid, Christopher B. Brooke, Joseph T. Walsh, William C. Sullivan, Rebecca L. Smith, Nigel D. Goldenfeld, Timothy M. Fan, Paul J. Hergenrother, Martin D. Burke. Nature Communications 13, 3207 (2022).
- Microfluidic point-of-care device for detection of early strains and B.1.1.7 variant of SARS-CoV-2 virus. Jongwon Lim, Robert Stavins, Victoria Kindratenko, Janice Baek, Leyi Wang, Karen White, James Kumar, Enrique Valera, William Paul King, Rashid Bashir. Lab Chip (2022).
- Detection of SARS-CoV-2 Virus Amplification Using a Crumpled Graphene Field-effect Transistor Biosensor. Insu Park, Jongwon Lim, Seungyong You, Michael Taeyoung Hwang, Jaehong Kwon, Katherine Koprowski, Sungdae Kim, John Heredia, Sarah A. Stewart de Ramirez, Enrique Valera, Rashid Bashir. ACS Sens., 6 (2021), 4461-4470.
- Spatial mapping of cancer tissues by OMICS technologies. Rashid Ahmed, Robin Augustine, Enrique Valera, Anurup Ganguli, Nasrin Mesaeli, Irfan S. Ahmad, Rashid Bashir, Anwarul Hasan. Biochimica et Biophysica Acta (BBA) - Reviews on Cancer, 1877 (2021), 188663.
- Overcoming the limitations of COVID-19 diagnostics with nanostructures, nucleic acid engineering, and additive manufacturing. NantaoLi, Bin Zhao, Robert Stavins, Ana Sol Peinetti, NehaChauhan, Rashid Bashir, Brian T. Cunningham,William P. King, Yi Lu, Xing Wang, Enrique Valera. Current Opinion in Solid State & Materials Science 26 (2022) 100966.
- Label-free SARS-CoV-2 detection and classification using phase imaging with computational specificity. Neha Goswami, Yuchen R. He, Yu-Heng Deng, Chamteut Oh, Nahil Sobh, Enrique Valera, Rashid Bashir, Nahed Ismail, Hyunjoon Kong, Thanh H. Nguyen, Catherine Best-Popescu & Gabriel Popescu. Light: Science & Applications 2021, 10, 176.
- COVID-19 Point-of-Care Diagnostics: Present and Future. Enrique Valera, Aaron Jankelow, Jongwon Lim, Victoria Kindratenko, Anurup Ganguli, Karen White, James Kumar, Rashid Bashir. ACS Nano 2021, 15, 5, 7899-7906.
- Portable Pathogen Diagnostics Using Microfluidic Cartridges Made from Continuous Liquid Interface Production Additive Manufacturing. Jacob Berger, Mehmet Y. Aydin, Robert Stavins, John Heredia, Ariana Mostafa, Anurup Ganguli, Enrique Valera, Rashid Bashir*, and William P. King. Anal. Chem. 2021, 93, 29, 10048–10055.
- Reverse Transcription Loop-Mediated Isothermal Amplification Assay for Ultrasensitive Detection of SARS-CoV-2 in Saliva and Viral Transport Medium Clinical Samples Anurup Ganguli, Ariana Mostafa, Jacob Berger, Jongwon Lim, Elbashir Araud, Janice Baek, Sarah A. Stewart de Ramirez, Ali Baltaji, Kelly Roth, Muhammad Aamir, Surya Aedma, Mohamed Mady, Pranav Mahajan, Sanjivani Sathe, Mark Johnson, Karen White, James Kumar, Enrique Valera, Rashid Bashir. Anal. Chem. 2021, 93, 22, 7797–7807.
- Diagnostic and prognostic capabilities of a biomarker and EMR‐based machine learning algorithm for sepsis. Ishan Taneja, Gregory L. Damhorst, Carlos Lopez‐Espina, Sihai Dave Zhao, Ruoqing Zhu, Shah Khan, Karen White, James Kumar, Andrew Vincent, Leon Yeh, Shirin Majdizadeh, William Weir, Scott Isbell, James Skinner, Manubolo Devanand, Syed Azharuddin, Rajamurugan Meenakshisundaram, Riddhi Upadhyay, Anwaruddin Syed, Thomas Bauman, Joseph Devito, Charles Heinzmann, Gregory Podolej, Lanxin Shen, Sanjay Sharma Timilsina, Lucas Quinlan, Setareh Manafirasi, Enrique Valera, Bobby Reddy Jr., Rashid Bashir. Clinical and Translational Science, 2021, 00:1-12
- Rapid isothermal amplification and portable detection system for SARS-CoV-2. Anurup Ganguli, Ariana Mostafa, Jacob Berger, Mehmet Y. Aydin, Fu Sun, Sarah A. Stewart de Ramirez, Enrique Valera, Brian T. Cunningham, William P. King, Rashid Bashir. PNAS, 2020, 117 (37), 22727-22735.
- Rapid, Multiplexed Detection of Biomolecules using Electrically Distinct Hydrogel Beads. Thomas W Cowell, Enrique Valera*, Aaron Jankelow, Joonhyuck Park, Alex W. Schrader, Ruihua Ding, Jacob Berger, Rashid Bashir, Hee Sun Han. Lab on a chip, 20, (2020), 2274-2283. Inside front cover * co-first author.
- Simultaneous Electrical Detection of IL-6 and PCT using a Microfluidic Biochip Platform. Jacob Berger, Enrique Valera, Aaron Jankelow, Carlos García, Manik Akhand, John Heredia, Tanmay Ghonge, Cynthia Liu, Victor Font-Bartumeus, Gina Oshana, Justin Tiao, Rashid Bashir. Biomedical Microdevices, 22:36, (2020).
- Smartphone-imaged microfluidic biochip for measuring CD64 expression from whole blood. Tanmay Ghonge, Hatice Ceylan Koydemir, Enrique Valera, Jacob Berger, Carlos Garcia, Noshin Nawar, Justin Tiao, Gregory L. Damhorst, Anurup Ganguli, Umer Hassan, Aydogan Ozcan, Rashid Bashir, Analyst, 144, (2019) 3925-3935. Front Cover Image.
- Electrochemical nanoprobe-based immunosensor for deoxynivalenol mycotoxin residues analysis in wheat samples. Enrique Valera, Raül García-Febrero, Christopher T. Elliott, Francisco Sánchez-Baeza, M.-P. Marco, Analytical and Bioanalytical Chemistry, 411, (2019) 1915-1926.
- A Microfluidic Biochip Platform for Electrical Quantification of Proteins. Enrique Valera, Jacob Berger, Umer Hassan, Tanmay Ghonge, Julia Liu, Michael Rappleye, Jackson Winter, Daniel Abboud, Zeeshan Haidry, Ryan Healey, Na-Teng Hung, Nathaniel Leung, Naif Mansury, Alenxander Hasnain, Christine Lannon, Zachary Price, Karen White, Rashid Bashir, Lab on a Chip, 18, (2018) 1461-1470.
- Detecting sepsis by observing neutrophil motility. Umer Hassan, Enrique Valera, Rashid Bashir, Nature Biomedical Engineering, 2, (2018) 197-198.
- A microfluidic technique to estimate antigen expression on particles. Tanmay Ghonge, Anurup Ganguli, Enrique Valera, Mariam Saadah, Gregory L. Damhorst, Jacob Berger, Gelson Pagan Diaz, Umer Hassan, Monish Chheda, Zeeshan Haidry, Stan Liu, Carissa Hwu, Rashid Bashir, APL Bioengineering 1, (2017) 016103.
- Electrochemical coding strategies using metallic nanoprobes for biosensing applications. Enrique Valera, Alejandro Hernández-Albors, M.-Pilar Marco, TrAC Trends in Analytical Chemistry, 79 (2016) 9-22.
- Development and validation of an immunosensor for monocyte chemotactic protein 1 using a silicon photonic microring resonator biosensing platform. Enrique Valera, Winnie W. Shia, Ryan C. Bailey, Clinical Biochemistry, 49 (2016) 121-126.
- Bioanalytical chemistry: Eavesdropping on interactions. Enrique Valera, Ryan C. Bailey, Nature Chemistry, 7 (2015) 767-769.
- Magnetically-actuated, bead-enhanced silicon photonic immunosensor. Enrique Valera, Melinda S. McClellan, Ryan C. Bailey, Analytical Methods 7 (2015) 8539-8544.
- Development and impedimetric evaluation of a magnetic interdigitated microelectrode. Benjamin Sanchez, Didac Vega, Angel Rodriguez, Ramon Bragos, M.-Pilar Marco, Enrique Valera. Sensors and Actuators B: Chemical 203 (2014) 444-451.
- Coulombimetric Immunosensor for Paraquat Based on Electrochemical Nanoprobes. Enrique Valera, Raül García-Febrero, Isabel Pividori, Francisco Sánchez-Baeza, M.-Pilar Marco. Sensors and Actuators B: Chemical 194 (2014) 353-360.
- An electrochemical magneto immunosensor (EMIS) for the determination of paraquat residues in potato samples. Raül Garcia-Febrero, Enrique Valera, Alejandro Muriano, Isabel Pividori, Francisco Sánchez-Baeza, M.-P. Marco. Analytical and Bioanalytical Chemistry 405 (2013) 7841-7849.
- Development of a Coulombimetric immunosensor based on specific antibodies labeled with CdS nanoparticles for sulfonamide antibiotic residues analysis and its application to honey samples. Enrique Valera, Alejandro Muriano, Isabel Pividori, Francisco Sánchez-Baeza, M.-P. Marco. Biosensors and Bioelectronics 43 (2013) 211-217.
- Biosensors for Pharmaceuticals Based on Novel Technological Approaches. Nuria Sanvicens, Ilaria Mannelli, J.-Pablo Salvador, Enrique Valera, M.-P. Marco. TrAC Trends in Analytical Chemistry 30 (2011) 541-553.
- Determination of atrazine residues in red wine samples. A conductimetric solution. Enrique Valera, Javier Ramón-Azcón, Alejandro Barranco, Begoña Alfaro, Francisco Sánchez-Baeza, M.-P. Marco, Ángel Rodríguez. Food Chemistry 122 (2010) 888-894.
- Fabrication of flexible interdigitated μ-electrodes (FIDμEs) for the development of a conductimetric immunosensor for atrazine detection based on antibodies labelled with gold nanoparticles. Enrique Valera, David Muñiz, Ángel Rodríguez. Microelectronic Engineering 87 (2010) 167-173.
- Conductimetric immunosensor for atrazine detection based on antibodies labelled with gold nanoparticles. Enrique Valera, Javier Ramón-Azcón, F.-J. Sanchez, M.-P. Marco, Ángel Rodríguez. Sensors and Actuators B: Chemical 134 (2008) 95-103.
- An Impedimetric Immunosensor based on Interdigitated Microelectrodes (IDµE) for the Determination of Atrazine Residues in Food Samples. Javier Ramón-Azcón, Enrique Valera, Ángel Rodríguez, Alejandro Barranco, Begoña Alfaro, F.-J. Sanchez, M.-P. Marco. Biosensors and Bioelectronics 23 (2008) 1367–1373.
- Single frequency impedimetric immunosensor for atrazine detection. Ángel Rodríguez, Enrique Valera, Javier Ramón-Azcón, F.-J. Sanchez, M.-P. Marco, Luis M. Castañer. Sensors and Actuators B 129 (2008) 921-928.
- Steady state and transient conductivity of colloidal solutions of gold nanobeads. Enrique Valera, Ángel Rodríguez, Luis M. Castañer. IEEE Transactions on Nanotechnology 6 No 5 (2007) 504-508.
- Development of microstructured zeolite films as highly accessible catalytic coating for microreactors. M.A. Urbiztondo, Enrique Valera, T. Trifinov, R. Alcubilla, S. Irusta, M.P. Pina, Á. Rodríguez, J. Santamaría. Journal of Catalysis 250 (2007) 190–194.
- Impedimetric immunosensor for atrazine detection using interdigitated μ-electrodes (IDµE’s). Enrique Valera, Javier Ramón-Azcón, Ángel Rodríguez, Luis M. Castañer, F.-J. Sánchez, M.-P. Marco. Sensors and Actuators B 125 (2007) 526–537.
- Fabrication of silicon oxide microneedles from macroporous silicon. A. Rodriguez, D. Molinero, Enrique Valera, T. Trifonov, L.F. Marsal, J. Pallarès, R. Alcubilla. Sensors and Actuators B 109 (2005) 135–140.